Research and Treatment Related to Voice in France It was during the 19th century in France that technical and scientific advances favored the creation of phonetic laboratories such as the one founded by pioneer Abbott Rousselot in 1897. His laboratory became a central place for exchanges between phoneticians, teachers, medical doctors, and speech clinicians. Suzanne Borel Maisonny, a ... World Beat
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World Beat  |   May 01, 2006
Research and Treatment Related to Voice in France
Author Notes
  • Lise Crevier-Buchman, is a medical doctor specializing in otolaryngology, head and neck surgery, as well as phoniatrics. She is head of the Voice, Speech and Swallowing Laboratory in the Head and Neck Department at the Hôpital Europeen Georges Pompidou, in Paris. She is president of the French Society of Phoniatrics and Communication Disorders. Contact her at lise.buchman@numericable.fr.
    Lise Crevier-Buchman, is a medical doctor specializing in otolaryngology, head and neck surgery, as well as phoniatrics. She is head of the Voice, Speech and Swallowing Laboratory in the Head and Neck Department at the Hôpital Europeen Georges Pompidou, in Paris. She is president of the French Society of Phoniatrics and Communication Disorders. Contact her at lise.buchman@numericable.fr.×
Article Information
Speech, Voice & Prosodic Disorders / Voice Disorders / Speech, Voice & Prosody / World Beat
World Beat   |   May 01, 2006
Research and Treatment Related to Voice in France
The ASHA Leader, May 2006, Vol. 11, 28-29. doi:10.1044/leader.WB2.11072006.28
The ASHA Leader, May 2006, Vol. 11, 28-29. doi:10.1044/leader.WB2.11072006.28
It was during the 19th century in France that technical and scientific advances favored the creation of phonetic laboratories such as the one founded by pioneer Abbott Rousselot in 1897. His laboratory became a central place for exchanges between phoneticians, teachers, medical doctors, and speech clinicians. Suzanne Borel Maisonny, a student of Abbot Rousselot, was the founder of the actual logopedics (“orthophonistes” in French), a paramedical specialty for voice and speech rehabilitation.
Logopedics is a four-year non-medical training area. In the field of voice therapy, voice research in phonetics (acoustics and articulation) helps to confirm traditional management techniques and to develop new physiologically based management approaches, mainly following oropharyngeal and laryngeal surgery, in restoring voicing features, consonant articulation, and prosodic variations.
Science and Phonetics
The Voice and Speech Laboratory, created in 1992, is located in the Department of Otolaryngology, Head & Neck Surgery at the European Georges Pompidou Hospital in Paris. This formal link between the medical sciences and experimental phonetics was the first venture of its kind in France. The laboratory is headed by Daniel Brasnu, in association with the Phonetics and Phonology lab headed by Jacqueline Vaissière.
The laboratory has conducted research programs to improve the laryngeal conservation surgical techniques. Research topics are oriented toward evaluating voice and speech disorders, selecting reliable acoustic, perceptual, and aerodynamic data; and defining management guidelines to improve the overall communication skills and quality of life of patients after surgery.
The central problem, well-known in this research area, is the technical difficulty observing the structure and functioning of the organs engaged in speaking. The development of new technologies visualizing the larynx and the vocal tract, coupled with synchronous acoustic, electroglottographic, and aerodynamic recordings, is of great help in understanding the compensatory mechanisms of speech production and for guiding speech treatment.
Interdisciplinary Research
Interdisciplinary research cooperation in areas of laryngeal histology, vocal aerodynamics and acoustics, vocal fold vibratory characteristics, neurolaryngology, articulation, and phonatory models has led to a clearer view of voice production. The main laboratories with inter-disciplinary research teams were created in Paris, Aix en Provence, Marseille, Grenoble, Strasbourg, and other cities, to develop experimental protocols for measuring segmental and suprasegmental parameters related to normal and pathological voice production. Multi-parameter work stations are being developed for new physiologically-based assessment approaches.
Collaboration with a non-medical team in Grenoble that deals with the physical understanding of human phonation (speech and singing) and works on acoustic and electroglottographic signal is a new perspective, using the basics of Fant’s model of speech production.
The European Research Group on Larynx, a subgroup of the European Laryngological Society, is conducting multipurpose research. The three main objectives are:
1) anatomical research with motor reinnervation of the larynx and nerve rehabilitation through micro-suture, coordinated by Jean-Paul Marie in Rouen;
2) functional exploration of voice and deglutition, the mechanical aspects of vocal fold vibration, and the standardization of voice parameters and adapted corpus in order to propose guidelines for minimal criteria assessment, including acoustics, perceptual data, self-evaluation, aerodynamics, and videostroboscopy; and
3) experimental work on the biomechanics and modelling of the vocal fold vibrations conducted by Antoine Giovanni in Marseille.
Phoniatric Degrees
Residents in otolaryngology, head and neck surgery can follow a special course in phoniatrics as an inter-university diploma.
In a more scientific domain, the master’s degree in clinical phonetics is a university degree open to medical and non-medical candidates. This program aims at introducing students to research methodology in the domain of voice and speech physiology and pathology. It takes an interdisciplinary perspective (covering medical, linguistic, and psycholinguistic areas), and looks at the work of phoneticians, physicians, and engineers. Clinical phonetics is taught in Paris and in Aix en Provence-Marseille.
Multidisciplinary Meetings
Several meetings bring together clinicians, phoneticians, linguists, and scientists to highlight advances in understanding voice production, evaluation, and therapeutic approaches. The first interdisciplinary meeting on clinical phonetics was held in March 2005 in Paris.
The annual congress of the French Society of Phoniatrics is a meeting where voice professionals can gather to present their interdisciplinary findings and exchange experiences with colleagues who are experts in the various fields of voice, including the scientific, clinical, pedagogical, therapeutic, and artistic areas.
A biannual meeting called “journées d’étude sur la parole” (JEP) focuses on speech communication and synthesis, at the crossroads of acoustics, signal processing, phonetics, linguistics, speech recognition, and clinical approaches of speech pathologies. The JEP 2006 should generate fruitful collaborations between voice and speech labs.
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May 2006
Volume 11, Issue 7